9. Produce ventilators and oxygen
The machines pump air and oxygen into the lungs, but they normally cost $25,000 or more each, and neither individual hospitals nor the federal emergency stock pile has ever had enough on hand to handle the number of pneumonia patients that this pandemic is expected to produce. Ventilators are basically air pumps with motors controlled by circuits that make them act like lungs: the pump pushed air into the patient, then stops so the weight of the chest can push the air back out. Automobiles and airplanes contain many small pumps, like those for oil, water and air-conditioning fluid, that might be modified to act as basic, stripped-down ventilators.
One of lessons of China, was that many Covid-19 patients who would normally have been intubated and on ventilators managed to survive with oxygen alone.
10. Retrofit hospitals
Wherever that was impractical, hospitals were divided into "clean" and "dirty" zones, and the medical teams did not cross over. Walls to isolate whole wards were built, and - as in Ebola wards - doctors want in one end of the room wearing protective gear and left by the other end, where they de-gowned under the eyes of a nurse to prevent infection.
11. Decide when to close schools
Closing schools is a normal part of cocial distancingl; after all, schools are the workplace for many adults, too. And when the disease is clearly spreading within an individual school, it must close.
12. Recruit volunteers
China's effort succeeded, experts said, in part because of hundreds of thousands of volunteers. Many people idled by the lockdown stepped up to act as fever checkers, conttact traccers, hospital construction workers, food delivers, even babysitters for the children of first responders, or as crematory workers. With trainning, volunteers were able to do some ground-level but crucial medical tasks, such as basic nursing, lab technician work or making sure that hospital rooms were correctly decontaminated.
13. Prioritize the treatment
Clinicians in China, Italy and France have thrown virtually everything they had in hospital pharmacies into the fight, and at least two possibilities have emerged that might save patients: the anti-malaria drugs chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, and the antiviral remdesivir, which has no licensed use. There is not proof yet that any of these are effective against the virus.
An alternative is to harvest protective antibodies from the blood of people who have survived the illness. The purified blood serum - called immunoglobulin - could possibly be used in small amounts to protect emergency medical worker, too.
"Unfortunately, the first wave won't benefit from this. We need to wait until we have enough survivors." Dr. Hotez said.
14. Find a vaccine
The ultimate hope is to have a vaccine that will protect everyone, and many companies and governments have already rushed the design of candidate vaccines. But testing those candidate vaccines for safety and effectiveness takes time. After extensive animal testing, vaccines are normally given to about ̀đ healthy human volunteers to see if they cause any unexpected side effects and to measure what dose produces enough antibodies to be considered protective.
In theory, the testing process could be sped up with "challenge trails", in which healthy volunteers get the vaccine and then are deliberately infected. But that is ethically fraught when there is no cure for Covid-19. Even some healthy young people have died from this virus.
15. Reach out the other nations
Wealthy nations need to remember that, as much as they are struggling with the virus, poorer countries will have a far harder time and need help. Also, the Asian nations that have contained the virus could offer expertise - and desperately needed equipment.
Wealthy nations ignored the daily warnings from Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, the W.H.O.'S director general, that far more aggressive efforts at isolation and contact tracing were urgently needed to stop the virus.
In declaring the coronavirus a pandemic, Dr. Tedros called for countries to learn from one another's successes, act with unity and help protect one another against a threat to people of every nationality.
"Let's all look out for each other," he said.
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